St. Euphemia

There's not much left of this old Christian church, but it seems to be preserved anyway. According to tradition she was killed in Calcedon, located across the Bosphorus (but not part of present day Istanbul metro) from the site of this church and burial site.
There’s not much left of this old Christian church, but it seems to be preserved anyway. According to tradition she was killed in Chalcedon, located across the Bosphorus Strait (but now part of present day Istanbul metro) from the site of this church and burial site.

Another random bit of history, found while wandering in the Suntanahamed area (Fatih District) of Istanbul. I ran across this small ruin, that once housed the remains of St. Euphemia. They are within site of the Blue Mosque/Sultan Ahmed MosqueAccording to Wikipedia,  “Euphemia was arrested for refusing to offer sacrifices to Ares. After suffering various tortures, she died in the arena at Chalcedon from wounds sustained from a bear. Her tomb became a site of pilgrimages. She is commemorated on September 16.” According to legend, she died in 303AD, but there isn’t much in the way of verifiable evidence that she ever lived, much less was martyred.

The part I found most interesting: “Around the year 620, in the wake of the conquest of Chalcedon by the Persians under Khosrau I in the year 617, the relics of Saint Euphemia were transferred to a new church in Constantinople. There, during the persecutions of the Iconoclasts, her reliquary was said to have been thrown into the sea, from which it was recovered by the ship-owning brothers Sergius and Sergonos, who belonged to the Orthodox party, and who gave it over to the local bishop who hid them in a secret crypt. The relics were afterwards taken to the Island of Lemnos, and in 796 they were returned to Constantinople. The majority of her relics are still in the Patriarchal Church of St. George, in Istanbul.”

Markers like these are all over the tourist areas of Sultanhamet and they are very helpful. They have four sides and each is in a different language: Turkish, Arabic, English and (sometimes) French. The translations can be a bit poor, but it's so much better than nothing.
Markers like these are all over the tourist areas of Sultanhamed and they are very helpful. They have four sides and each is in a different language: Turkish, Arabic, English and (sometimes) French. The translations can be a bit poor, but it’s so much better than nothing.

Milion Marker

 

All the Tulips have just bloomed, so it is glorious in Istanbul. There's a Tulip Festival coming up, too. Not sure what the brick structure is beside this marker. Anyone?
All the Tulips have just bloomed, so it is glorious in Istanbul. There’s a Tulip Festival coming up, too. Not sure what the brick structure is beside this marker. One guidebook refers to it as an Ottoman water tower.

Sometimes there is just a tiny bit of history here in Istanbul. It’s so easy to just walk by. Trudy and I stumbled across the Milion mile marker yesterday while strolling through a misty, rainy Sultanahmet area. I’ve walked by it a few times already, but was looking for it this trip. This stone is located in the Hagia Sophia square, just around the corner from the entrance to the Basilica Cistern. There’s the remains of a large masonry structure beside it, but it doesn’t seem to be connected.

This marker was located in the Hippodrome (the chariot racing stadium) area. It is all that remains of a Byzantine triumphal arch. All road distances to the far corners of the empire were once measured from this stone. Now there’s a cute sign post with distances and directions to major cities.

According to Wikipedia“The domed building of the Milion rested on 4 large arches, and it was expanded and decorated with several statues and paintings. It had survived intact, following the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople (1453), for about the next 50 years, but disappeared at the start of the 16th century. During excavations in the 1960s, some partial fragments of it were discovered under houses in the area.”

This is the Milion marker, or at least what is left of it. It was raining, so I got really wet, then there was a power outage and so we walked a mile to a bus station in the rain to find a way back. Welcome to Turkey.
This is the Milion marker, or at least what is left of it. It was raining, so I got really wet, then there was a power outage and so we walked a mile to a bus station in the rain to find a way back. Welcome to Turkey.

Istanbul, 033115, 12

 

Impressions of Istanbul, first month

Garbage collection is good in Istanbul. You can find trash cans on the streets and dumpsters in residential areas. The streets are swept daily--with all the smokers, there's always lots of cigarette butts.
Garbage collection is good in Istanbul. You can find trash cans on the streets and dumpsters in residential areas. The streets are swept daily–with all the smokers, there’s always lots of cigarette butts.

4/1/2015

So far, I’m quite happy here in Istanbul. It’s an amazing city—crowded, of course, but most everything is better than Bien Hoa, Vietnam. Especially the job. In fact, Vietnam seems like a long time ago. And I can’t believe by this time last year I had been hiking the Appalachian Trail for a month!

Here are the positives: It’s easier for me to find clothes. Things are in my size and the quality of clothing is comparable to the US. In Vietnam, all the clothes were very small and looked like it would fall apart in a couple washings. The quality and variety of all items for sale is better here, too—and vacuum cleaners exist here, unlike Vietnam.  I’ve not seen any cordless models, but at least you don’t have to sweep with those wimpy brooms. Garbage is a better system—though Turks throw garbage in the gutter, the streets are cleaned every day. There are also trashcans on the sidewalk and on the corner of many residential streets there are large dumpsters. That’s where I throw my trash every day. Otherwise things are fairly clean with little graffiti.

I like the weather—it is variable, unlike VN. You can’t believe how much you miss cool mornings or gentle rain or even an overcast sky.  The “sameness” just got boring. Two seasons: wet and dry. Two temperatures: hot and hotter. And the heat was oppressive. Here in Istanbul, it’s cool enough that I can find clover–and four leaf clovers! (My favorite pastime) It’s spring now and things are blooming, including winter pansies and lots of bulbs. There’s a Tulip festival coming up soon. It rains often, but it’s mostly a gentle sprinkle.

The Metro system is new—most of it less than a decade old. It’s in good shape and the buses and trams run very often. But they are all very full because there are so many people here using the system. I usually have to stand when I take the metro bus 8 stops to school. There are actually two bus systems. There are conventional buses that run with traffic and there are metro buses. The metro buses run in dedicated lanes in the middle of the highways–what would be the median in the US. They are surprisingly fast. Plus, there are underground metro systems, tramways and funiculars in addition to trains. All of these a paid with the same card system. Only the dolmas–which run from the metro buses around neighborhoods–are paid separately, in cash.

One of my co-teachers has railed about the rudeness of people on the metro, but I’ve not noticed it. Occasionally, some youngster won’t vacate a seat for an older person, but it’s less than I’d expect in NYC. And most of the time someone will step up and tell the youth to get up, which they do, sheepishly. Hopefully, I still “look” young and healthy enough that they don’t feel the need to get up for me all the time.

(I recently had a student who I took to be old enough to be my father. Turned out I was 2 years older than he! I just don’t feel old, even though I am by many standards. My students tell me that when a woman here is my age, she just stays home since she is old. LOL)

The big downside here is smoking. It’s everywhere. EVERYWHERE. Men smoke almost constantly. Women smoke too, but not always in public. It shocks me to see smoking at the level of 1950’s USA. My students even argue that smoking isn’t THAT bad for you. They are not allowed to smoke in the classroom, fortunately, but they do smoke in most cafes and restaurants and trying to get into a doorway can be impossible in the rain–all the smokers are crowded just outside. The 10 minute break every hour is a requirement for the smokers in my classroom. I don’t have to look at the time. They will tell me!

The worst things in Istanbul are caused by too many people and a (currently) conservative government. I experienced my second power outage in Istanbul yesterday. The first was a few days ago and lasted just an hour. I’m told that’s common and affects part of the city every weekday, though there doesn’t appear to be a schedule. It’s a way to force reduced electrical use. Yesterday the outage was 8 hours and affected most of the country!

I’d taken a new teacher and roommate, Trudy, to see the Sultanahmet area (see photos below) and we couldn’t get the tram back because none of them were running! No one could speak enough English to explain the problem to us, but we eventually figured out that none of them were working and the stores that were open had generators. I had an appointment at 1p, so needed to be at school. We tried to take a taxi, but the driver wouldn’t use the meter–he wanted us to pay 100TL (about double what it should have been)! I didn’t even try to bargain, I just walked away. We eventually found a bus that went to our destination. Felt pretty lucky to have figured it out. Welcome to Turkey!

I took Trudy to the Sultanahmet area, which includes the Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya in Turkish). We didn't have time to enter the old church, but we did visit the tombs in the back, which are free.
I took Trudy to the Sultanahmet area, which includes the Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya in Turkish). We didn’t have time to enter the old church, but we did visit the tombs in the back, which are free.

Istanbul, 033115, 4

Don't you love the turbans? The room was very grand--lovely tile and marble.
Don’t you love the turbans? The room was very grand–lovely tile and marble.
I try to carry a scarf all the time, in case I run into a tomb or religious place I want to visit. It is not REQUIRED that I cover my hair--that's the law. But it is a sign of respect to do so. Everyone takes off their shoes however.
I try to carry a scarf all the time, in case I run into a tomb or religious place I want to visit. It is not REQUIRED that I cover my hair–that’s the law. But it is a sign of respect to do so. Everyone takes off their shoes, however.

I made it to my appointment only 10 minutes late—AFTER walking up 9 flights of stairs to get to the Şirinevler (SHEAR EE NEV LAR) classrooms (this is a neighborhood in the district Bahçelievler BAH CHE LEEV LAR). Tuncay (TOON JAI) was not there yet—he’d had the same problem with trams. He’s much younger, but since he’s a smoker, the stairs nearly killed him! LOL He took me to buy another cell phone to replace the one that was stolen over the weekend. I paid 660TL for a used iPhone 4S, case, charger, and SIM card. Seems like a lot of money for an older model phone, but I have to have one. And then we walked back up the stairs a second time.

After, I planned to stay at school and do my lesson plan for that night, but Edgar (a new teacher) simply wouldn’t leave me alone, so I decided I’d brave the steps AGAIN. Got a metro bus to my apartment, which, surprisingly has limited power. No elevator, though, so up 5 flights of stairs. The limited power means that we have no hot water, can’t shower or do laundry, but we have lights, can charge phones, wash our faces and cook. Better than much of the city. (These restrictions were lifted the next day)

At 5p, I got back on the metro bus and walked up the stairs again to school. Still no power. They were just about to cancel classes when the power came back on at 6:15! I only had 6 students for my 7p class—and three of them left at the second break. We all agreed that it had been a difficult day. If I could have, I would have gone home too. The three students that stayed are actually some of the lowest level English speakers—Murat (who seems to have just broken up with his Russian girlfriend, Natalie), Gökhan (who recently learned how to properly use “This is,” There are,” “but” and “so”) , and Serhat (a poor but adorable student, who will never pass level 1, but has a good attitude and a wonderful smile.) Though their skills are low with English, they are very nice. I think of them as Turkish good-old-boys, and they are improving, though they never study outside of class and never do their homework. (They even leave their books at school in an empty cabinet in our classroom). Despite this, I can still see a lot of improvement in a month. I spent the last hour just talking with them—I’d placed a few simple questions on the board and we discussed them. Easy Peasy (as my students have learned)—this activity does more to make them think and speak in English than anything else. But it only works with small groups that are at the same level so that everyone can participate.

What I’ve learned about the Turkish language

This may be the most patriotic country I've ever been to. They love their flag and you will see it everywhere.
This may be the most patriotic country I’ve ever been to. They love their flag and you will see it everywhere.

I started Turkish lessons, but everyone else in the class had been here for months and had a lot of basic vocabulary. I don’t, though I work at it every day. I simply could not keep up with the class, so I’ve dropped out. Also, the teacher, though a great guy, simply has a different style that doesn’t work for me. I need more structure. But I am continuing on my own to try to learn this language. Here’s what I know so far, after 4 weeks of living here.

Turkish is a language that developed heavily from Persian, Arabic and French. In 1928, the Ottoman script was replaced by the Latin Alphabet, mostly by the innovative leader Kemal Atatürk. He was a brilliant man who gave his life, his resources and his health to his country—dragging them kicking and screaming into the 20ith century, mostly by sheer force of will.  An amazing man, by all accounts.  There are statues, photos and death masks of him everywhere. If you look in the dictionary under the word “beloved” you will see his picture. Want to commit suicide? Go to a public place and start saying bad things about Ataturk. You won’t last long.

Anyway, back to Turkish. In the early 1980’s, English was established as the second language, with less emphasis on French and German—one of the reasons I can come here to teach.

The Turkish Alphabet has 29 letters to our 26. Vowels are a, e, i, o, u (the ones we are familiar with, called and pronounced ah, ay, ee, oh, oo) plus I (that’s an I without a dot, called and pronounced eh), ö, ü (referred to and pronounced as ea as in early and u as in nude).

There are also a few new consonants: ç  (Called chay, pronounced like ch in chair),  ş (called shay, pronounced like the sh in should) and  ğ(called yumasak gay, it is not pronounced). And they don’t use q, w or x. Every letter has its own sound. Most are similar to English but there are exceptions: for example, c is pronounced like j. You get used to it.

With the exception of ğ, every letter is pronounced in Turkish. If you can say it properly, you can spell it and vice versa. For example the word Mine (a common name) is pronounced MEE NAY). There is very little emphasis on any syllable, and often every syllable is pronounced with the same stress.

You will never see the –th sound. If you find a word that has these two letters side by side, assume that the syllable break is between the letters and pronounce them separately. The name Beth is impossible for them to say.

Forming words: The Turks form words mostly by adding suffixes—letters on the end of the root word. Sometimes a word will have several added to it and be a complete sentence in itself.  It’s logical and completely foreign to English. Endings are added one my one to the root word to produce the desired meeting and letters are added to create verb tenses. An English phrase such as “you should not have to go” will be expressed in Turkish as a single word “go” (git) as the root. For example: gitmek means “to go” or “going.” The single root word git is like the imperative form for English: Go!  Or to make a noun plural, you add either –lar or -ler.  It’s really very logical.

To Be/Articles—”be” is a verb that we use constantly in English (am, is, are, was, were) but isn’t seen in most languages. Same with articles (a, an, the). It is a constant struggle for Turkish speakers to comprehend how to use them and why on earth anyone would bother.  Once you understand that other languages don’t use them you begin to see what a hassle they are! Grammar rules in Turkish always apply, particularly those of pronunciation. English rules only work about 80% of the time. All of my students quickly learn the phrases: “most of the time in English…..” and “English is not fair.”

Vowel Harmony: I have much to learn on this subject, but it’s safe to say that Turkish is very concerned with vowel harmony. Words have to sound right and you can’t just stick any vowel in a suffix. All the vowels in a word have to be of the same “type” which I’ve learned is “thick” or “thin” though I can’t quite figure out why one is one way or another. It matters and I’m figuring out how. Always lots to learn.  I do know that ğ, yumasak gay, is only found between vowels and is used as a kind of spacer—since they don’t like vowels side by side. Again, it isn’t pronounced.

It’s hard. But I think I have a shot at eventually being functional in Turkish. Not sure that was even possible in Vietnamese.

Tomb and cemetery of Mahmud II

Mausoleum of Sultan Mahmud II, taken from the busy street. You can see the tramlines in the street.
Mausoleum of Sultan Mahmud II, taken from the busy street. You can see the tramlines in the street.

I wasn’t looking for this when I ran across it. I was looking for a haman–a Turkish bathhouse. But this quiet and regal cemetery and tomb simply drew me in from the crowded street of Istanbul’s Grand Bazaar area.

The Sultan Mahmud II cemetery and tomb are in what is now a busy, downtown area, It’s surprising to see it so close to trams, carpet hawkers and  kabapci sellers (kee bap jee, sellers of kebobs).  The mausoleum itself houses the sarcophagi of three Ottoman sultans: Sultan Mahmud II (1875-1839), Sultan Abdulaziz (1830-1876), and Sultan Abdul Hamid II (1842-1918), and those of their close relatives. Adjacent to the mausoleum is a small graveyard containing the graves of some of the sultans’ more remote descendants and assorted dignitaries. Some graves are much older than the mausoleum.

Inside the mausoleum. You have to take your shoes off, but admission is free. I keep a scarf for this sort of thing. It's not required, but it is a sign of respect to cover your hair--much as used to be done in Catholic churches.
Inside the mausoleum. You have to take your shoes off, but admission is free. I keep a scarf for this sort of thing. It’s not required, but it is a sign of respect to cover your hair–much as used to be done in Catholic churches.
The caskets are oversized and tilted at an angle. On top of the draped box is a fez.
The caskets are oversized and tilted at an angle. On top of the draped box is a fez.

Istanbul, 032815, Tomb of Mehmud II, 12

Istanbul, 032815, Tomb of Mehmud II, 3 Istanbul, 032815, Tomb of Mehmud II, 7

The cemetery is even older and fascinating. I am still learning the symbolism. I found this information about Ottoman style tombstones: “Sixteenth-century Ottoman tombstones marked a change in funerary practice in the Empire. By now tombstones were beginning to appear as social markers where they were not only starting to be more prominent in structure, but there were also headgears of different turbans, decoration of the body of the tombstones with motifs, as well as providing more information about the deceased. The first mentioned change is said to be an indication of the pre-Islamic Turkic traditions. This carving of headgears displayed the social status and thus class of the deceased. Motifs were almost always reserved for women. With the exclusion of the palace women who had mausoleums next to their husbands, women didn’t hold social status through occupation. Perhaps it was because of this reason that women tombstones were fashioned in flower motifs.” There is a good video at the link that shows the cemetery.

From the internet: This beautiful tomb was built in Mahmud's sister's garden after his death. In the tomb with Mahmud is the 32nd Otomon Emperor Sultan Abdulazia, 34th Ottoman Emperor Sultan Abdulhamid II, and other members of the family incluing children and the wives of Mahmud and Abdulaziz. Eighteen family members are buried here. The chamber to the left of the entry contains the remains of 11 family members who are wives and children of the Sultans. There are 130 statesmen buried in the garden outside of the tomb. The tomb is located in the heart of the tourist district in the Sultan Ahmet section of Istanbul. It is very close to the Hagia Sofia, Blue Mosque, Grand Bazaar and other tourist attractions.
From the internet: This beautiful tomb was built in Mahmud’s sister’s garden after his death. In the tomb with Mahmud is the 32nd Otomon Emperor Sultan Abdulazia, 34th Ottoman Emperor Sultan Abdulhamid II, and other members of the family incluing children and the wives of Mahmud and Abdulaziz. Eighteen family members are buried here. The chamber to the left of the entry contains the remains of 11 family members who are wives and children of the Sultans. There are 130 statesmen buried in the garden outside of the tomb. The tomb is located in the heart of the tourist district in the Sultan Ahmet section of Istanbul. It is very close to the Hagia Sofia, Blue Mosque, Grand Bazaar and other tourist attractions.
These are dated in the 1300's.
These are dated in the 1300’s.

Istanbul, 032815, Tomb of Mehmud II, 6

The cemetery outside the Sultan Mahmud II mausoleum. The tombstones are made to resemble the "hats" or turbans that were worn.
The cemetery outside the Sultan Mahmud II mausoleum. The tombstones are made to resemble the “hats” or turbans that were worn.

Istanbul, 032815, Tomb of Mehmud II, 2

 

This is from the site:  Ottoman Tombstones http://tombstones.commons.gc.cuny.edu/inscriptions/
This is from the site: Ottoman Tombstones http://tombstones.commons.gc.cuny.edu/inscriptions/